Anatolian Seljuk Empire placed Anatolian Turkmen Beys with their tribe to Byzantine and Cilicia borders. In this way, the Anatolian Seljuk Empire kept Turkmen Beys under control and secured the borders of the state.
After the Anatolian Seljuk Empire’s defeat to Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, their control over Turkmens weakened. Then a branch of Mongols the Ilkhanate took over the control in Anatolia.
In this period, the border seigniories first became satellite states of Ilkhanate and then became independent states. In progress of time one of these seignories, Ottoman Seigniory, seized other seigniories and became an Empire.
State Structure of the Seigniories and Order of Army
The founders of Anatolian Seigniories were tribes. Anatolian Seljuk Empire particularly placed these tribes to the Byzantine border and gave these lands to them as a fief. In the fief system, Turkmen Beys were sending troops to Anatolian Seljuk Sultan in time of war in return for land given to them. Sultan had the property of lands, but Beys owned the rights to cultivate them. After Beys declared their independence, they took Anatolian Seljuk Empire’s state structure as an example.
In Anatolian seigniories, Dynasty was managing state. The oldest or most influential person in the dynasty called Ulu Bey. Ulu Bey was at the center of state while assigns his sons and siblings to the management of provinces. State affairs were discussed in the council concluded in there. The money of state was minting in the name of Ulu Bey.
Army in Anatolian seigniories had Ulu Bey’s cavalries, infantries, and soldiers raised by the Beys of a fief. During the war, the army was splitting into three branches. Ulu Bey was controlling center forces while his sons and siblings controlling left and right forces. Bow, sword, pike, dagger, ax, mace and catapult were the main weapons used in the army.
Economy and Communal Living
There were three types of land. These lands called fief, foundation, and property. The state would give the income of some lands to a person as payment in return of its services or to a foundation. Peasants would cultivate these lands and give the tax to the owner of the land. It was forbidden to peasants abandon their duty so they couldn’t go far away from the lands they were responsible. People who live in cities and towns were freer than peasants. Each artisan branch was connected to its own Ahi Guild with that artisans were organized within themselves.
The economy was dependent on the farm. Subjected to conditions climate and soil people would grow wheat, fruit, and cotton. Livestock farming was also highly common. Rugs and carpets made in Anatolia were selling to foreign markets. Most of the silver extracted around Kütühya, Amasya, and Bayburt was selling to foreigners. In Anatolian seigniories trade was developed. Sinop, Trabzon, and Samsun near the Black Sea, Izmır, Selçuk, and Balat near the Aegean Sea, Antalya, and Yumurtalık near the Mediterranean Sea were most important port cities for domestic and foreign trade. Kayseri, Konya, and Sivas were trade centers in Anatolia. Sivas was the most important trade center among them.
We’ll continue with a writing about history of every beylic in Anatolia.